Martha- if you are referring to carbon wheels with wider rims (not the disc wheels for Time Trials), I’d ride with them all the time. I have them on my two road bikes and never change to heavier wheels. The wheels make a difference but it is not THAT much of a difference to be the equivalent of training harder. In fact, you will notice that cross-winds will be harder with deeper wheels, and you will need to get used to having to keep your bike stable in these conditions.
In addition, you should ride and train with the same bike/setup that you will use on race day as much as possible. Just to give you an idea, at the end of August I “retire” my road bike and do all my rides and outdoor workouts on my gravel bike in preparation for cyclocross. Next year, I plan in riding my gravel bike even more throughout the year.